The Orange Order’s “Graduated Response” and Julie Duggan. Julie Who?

A couple of days ago  DUP leader Peter Robinson, UUP leader Mike Nesbitt, TUV leader Jim Allister, PUP leader Billy Hutchinson and Ian McLaughlin of the Ulster Political Research Group issued a statement:.

There will be a graduated unionist response involving the Orange Institution, the PUL (Protestant Unionist Loyalist) community and political unionism.


The Orange Order and its concerns are now front and centre in unionist politics.

All Unionist/Loyalist parties   paid court to self-styled “Grand master” Stevenson and his brethren at the Order’s new headquarters


and left it to the Order to craft a statement summing up proceedings and setting out demands, saying   the ‘graduated response’ would “become more obvious as the days and weeks roll out”. There was no indication what form the pan-unionist action would take.No one seems to have any idea what it’s all about.




grandmaster stevenson

Self-styled ” Grandmaster Stevenson” decided the  Orange Order  is holding an emergency meeting of all self-styled “county” and “district grand masters”  to decide on potential protest action.

In the meantime  just to get the ball rolling

get the ball rolling

 DUP, David Simpson MP  for Upper Bann complained about  a republican memorial event planned for  Tuesday in Portadown.

david simpson 2

Who is David Simpson?

Member of the Orange Order,  Deputy Master of Loughgall District,  a proponent of creationism,

What’s the Republican event?


julie dougan


Who was Julie Duggan?

26 year old Cumann na mBan Volunteer Julie Duggan died in a car accident while on active service in 1972.  She was the first female IRA member to be killed in action.

jen mccann mla

West Belfast MLA Jennifer McCann, “Julie Duggan was the embodiment of the founders of Irish republicanism. She was involved in her community, was an active union member, abhorred sectarianism and her greatest desire was to see all the people of Ireland working together to build a unified, egalitarian society”.

Comment: That’s why the Orange Order objects to any commemoration!

What’s Cumann na mBan?


teresa's book

This book is based on  interviews with women activists. It explores how and why women became active in the IRA and examines  their roles within it

In the 1970s women joined Cumann na mBan

I was given political lectures, learned about guns and explosives and how to conceal things about my person”

Armed struggle or political violence, whatever you want to call it, is not a normal thing for women

Women are usually considered victims or peace-makers. Women were the mothers, wives and sisters of Blanketmen, the prison visitors, the carers of children and the home.They  experienced sexual harassment on countless occasions – when their homes were raided, on the streets, when they were arrested and during weekly prison visits to Armagh, Long Kesh/the Maze and Crumlin Road jail

The new Provisional IRA agreed to give women military training,Dolours Price was reported to be the first woman sworn in.

Women filled the spaces left by the men as the jails filled up with internees.

ira women


The first organised women’s action was breaking the Falls Curfew

Female volunteers were always much fewer than male and childless female volunteers greatly outnumbered those with children

ira women3

How did women join the IRA?

Family involvement usually

Why did women  join the IRA?

Experience of state violence and the Republican Armed Struggle as the only means left to resist oppression.

They can’t kill my friends and neighbours and I’m not going to have children to be brought up in this and be treated like this

At one stage out of a family of 8, there were 2 of us left in the house. The rest of the family was in jail or on the run and that was including my mother as well”
In Belfast you had to get involved to survive

Sometimes Republicanism was a political conviction and the  decision to join was made with the conscious realization that the atrocities perpetrated against individuals and families within the community were systemic.

I’m not a Republican because some RUC man dragged me off the street by the hair of my head and bashed me.It’s a belief that it’s the only way to make this country better”

Involvement was often triggered by a key event – 1969, the prison struggle, the hunger strikes, death of Bobby sands,

life couldn’t have went any other way


Internment 1971: women were left to provide for the family when breadwinners were interned and cope with supporting internees
My childhood memory is of Internment morning –sitting on my mother’s bed when the Brits were smashing our front door open and hearing glass breaking and crying”

internment 1971
I had a brother who was arrested and my mother and my sister followed the trail of blood down the street to try and find him because the Brits would never tell you where they were taking anyone



house raids


House raids: 1971 -1988:  the British Army raided and searched almost 300.000 homes

One of the British soldiers actually urinated all over the carpet on the stairs in front of us . . .”
In another house the soldiers had urinated on the beds



first communion

Interrogations: 10-15 years after this picture was taken  these were the type of girls who were interrogated.

Interrogation commonly involves rape, threat of rape and technical rape (with objects. fingers etc)”.

Women have been handcuffed while interrogators repeatedly probed their vaginas and anuses”
During one of the interrogations it was very bad I actually feared I was going to be fucking raped

strip search


1982: Strip searches had the impact of sexual assault

a debasing and revolting practice”, 

They are designed to exert power and control.This is why scanners will never be introduced into NI prisonsthe people who perform the procedure are degraded and humiliated – not those who are forced to undergo it.

One woman was strip searched 250 times.

ira women prisoners

NB: In 2.000 strip searches carried out on 24 women in Armagh jail in the mid-80s, tobacco was the only prohibited object to be found.
Maureen O Neill was on remand for “terrorist offences”
I went through 82 strip searches and in the end I was acquitted of all charges”
2 March 1991: Maghaberry prison – 21 women were forcibly subjected to strip searches”

“What happened over the 10 hours can only be described as sexual, psychological and physical torture. Up to 16 screws entered the cell and removed the woman’s clothes until she was totally naked. Every other woman in the gaol could hear each attack as it took place. In actual fact women spent the whole day listening to their comrades being sexually abused before and after her own turn came”


teresa's book


Theresa O_Keefe-Feminist Identity Development and Activism in Revolutionary Movements-Palgrave Macmillan (2013)

SBN: 978-0-230-23612-7, ISBN10: 0-230-23612-X

8 thoughts on “The Orange Order’s “Graduated Response” and Julie Duggan. Julie Who?

  1. The “sexual assault” aspects to the strip searches for female prisoners is a very important point, rarely discussed and certainly not in the news media, then or now. It’s something I’d like to focus on myself in future posts.

    By the by, what exactly does the use by Robinson and co. of the term “Protestant Unionist Loyalist” mean? Do they realise it is very different from saying “Protestant OR Unionist OR Loyalist”? Clearly one cannot be a Catholic or a Muslim or an atheist and be a Unionist or Loyalist. The ultimate declaration of sectarianism.


  2. nice to hear from you again Séamas – yes obviously PUL and CNR are the temmuns and ussuns – in the Orange mindset (which I think I have illustrated clearly over the past year or so) there are only two categories.
    There’s no conception of people growing, changing, acquiring experiences that alter their outlooks.
    What you are born determines what you are for the rest of your life- if you are born one of us, no matter what you do, you will always be welcome back into the “Unionist family”. If you are born one of them, no matter what you do, you will never be welcome into the “Unionist family”.
    Hence the current “pan Unionist/orange/paramilitary alliance” as they realize they are no longer an absolute majority

    as regards the sexual effect of strip searches – This post was dealing with women because it started off with the Julie Duggan commemoration- The type of quotes about the sexualisation of strip searches which used to humiliate, display power, control and domination that you find in Teresa O’Keefe’s book are also found in The Footsteps of Anne.
    I think the principles also apply to men prisoners but men are less likely to talk about that because it is so much more traumatic for them.
    Until recently Irish society has always been rather reticent with regards to sex – it’s a private matter, Even today menstruation or conquests are never flaunted, ( bad taste),
    Apart from religious background other reasons for this reticence might be because families lived in small houses/cabins in such close proximity, Victorian middle-class puritanism and “doing the done thing”,
    In a society like that sexuality is easily used to humiliate, dominate etc. as men and women were easily shocked/shamed by certain exhibitions and violations of privacy that they had/have to go through in front of people that they don’t know and with whom they did/do not have an intimate relationship.

    One of the women prisoners said they overcame these feelings when they realized the gaolers could not control their minds. A powerful statement indeed
    As John Milton said – the mind can make a heaven of hell and a hell of heaven!

    let me know what you think!



  3. Pingback: Mairead Farrell (1957 – 1988): the life, times and death of one Belfast woman | the

  4. There was undoubtably courageous people in the Republician movement but Robert Nairac should be allowed to be returned home for a proper burial


  5. Thanks for your comment Ray and welcome to the site. There are still 3 Disappeared whose bodies have not been recovered and Capt Nairac’s among them. At present a search is on-going for the remains of 19 year old Colomba Mc Veigh from Co Tyrone who has been missing since 1975. Maybe Capt Nairac will be next or Joe Lynskey


  6. Hello, can you confirm for me when Julie Duggan is buried? I believe I came across her grave in a cemetery in NI as I was searching for my great-grandparents’ gravestone. I’m writer and am interested in learning more about her story. Please feel free to email me privately if you do not want this information shared. Thank you. -Leslie, Brookyln, NY


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